The Balinese has already owned their belief and culture when Hinduism was brought into Indonesia about 2000 year ago. Around 400 AD, the Hindu Kingdoms in Central and East Java had their great influence over Bali, but when a new religion, Islam came in, the Hindu Kingdom in Java became less and less powerful, at that time a large number of priests, noblemen. Artists and their followers refused the new religion and escaped to Bali. They blended their belief and traditions with those of the local people, a blend of which is inherited by the present Balinese people, the rich culture which is instead of the scenic beauty of the island, has attracted noir and more visitors from time to time. The stronghold of their religion and traditions may be the main factor that enables them to preserve their culture from the outside influences
The People and Everyday LifeThe populations of about 2,500,000 people mainly live on agriculture with rice as the staple food. The other crops, among others, are coconut, maize, soybean, cassava, coffee, clove, vanilla, etc.
Bali is also known for its wide variety of tropical fruit, such as: mango, banana, jack fruit, watermelon, salak, the thorny skinned, durian the tasty but smelly one, grape and many others. Every day live in Bali merges with social duties and religious obligations while the art reflects an unnoticed integration of environment, religion and community in which individual is a part. The organizations of the villages, land cultivation up to the creations of art are communal efforts. A village in Bali is the central place for its people while a family is , which is grouped into 'Banjar', the group unit of several families.
Hindu religion or Hindu Dharma is held by almost 95% of the population. Its teaching is to reach peace and harmony of life guided by the Wedas as Holy Scriptures. Hindu Dharma is special blend of Hinduism, Buddhism and ancestor worship that has been flourishing over centuries.They believe in One Supreme God called: Ida Sanghang Widhi Wasa, with His there Manifestations known as: Trisakti, that is: Brahma, the Creator, Wisnu the Preserver, and Shiwa the transformer.
Religion is inseparable from the everyday life, from the simple daily rituals to the lavishly semi annually temple festivals. No opportunity is lost to worship God in an unending series of ceremonies that stretches from birth up to after death of the people.
There are there things guiding the spiritual life of the Hindu Balinese people which are: Tatwa tells about the Panca Crada, the five principle beliefs or cradas that are belief in the existence of: (Braman: the Godhead), (Atman: the soul), (Samsara: reincarnation), (Karma: the law of cause and effect), (Moksha: unity with God/Nirvana) Susila, moral codes, put emphasis on their thing e.g.: Positive thinking, Positive talking, Positive action Known locally as " Trikaya Parisuda". Related to those moral codes also can be mentioned "Tat Wam Asi", freely translated into "I am you" or "you are me" which controls and prevents somebody form committing (intentional) wrongdoing.
Upacara, are those religious ceremonies classified into five classification e.g.: Dewa Nyadnya: Ceremonies related to the worship of God. Rsi Nyadnya: Related to the prophet, priests or priest hood. Pitra Nyadnya: Related to the dead Buta Yadnya: Sacrifices to placate the negative (butas).
As the out-come of the tatwa among other you can see a lot of temples dedicated to Brahman, God the almighty, and temples dedicated to the ancestors, the souls of the dead relative. The belief in samsara creates the opinion that having children is important to give possibility for the soul to reincarnate. Family planning is successful in Bali because there is also a set of rules spiritually controlling the birth of too many children. That is in the "duties of parents" which includes the necessity to look after children well which parents cannot do if they have too many.